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What Is The Horn Effect?
The horn effect is the opposite of the halo effect. The horn effect is when we attribute more negative traits to a person based on one negative trait. Usually, that negative trait is unattractiveness.
An unattractive man or woman will be assumed to have more negative qualities based purely on their appearance. This is a common example of the horn effect, which can manifest in many different ways.
Origin Of The Horn Effect
The phenomenon was revealed in 1920 by a psychologist named Edward Thorndike. Edward Thorndike did an experiment that led to this theory.
He asked officers to judge their soldier’s level of intelligence, leadership, strength, and character without ever meeting any of them.
He noticed that when a soldier had just one positive quality, such as physical attractiveness or a physique. The officers would extend more positive qualities to the soldier. This created a “halo” over the soldier. Thus discovering the halo effect.
Mr. Edward Thorndike, assumed that if this was true in the positive, it likely must be true in the negative as well (And it was).
The officers who judge their soldiers poorly assumed that the soldier was inferior in many other categories (again with no evidence to support the assumption). Creating a negative halo or reverse halo effect.
The opposite of a halo would be horns on a devilish creature. This is where the term “horn” effect originates from.
Common Examples Of The “Horn Effect”
There are 3 common examples of the horn effect in action. Let’s go through each of them.
Trying To Start A New Job
Employment is a necessity for all of us. Being a new person anywhere can be a nerve-wracking ordeal. When you first arrive at your new job (let’s say it’s an office environment) and you begin meeting your co-workers.
One of your co-workers has the tendency to cut people off when speaking. You find this extremely rude but don’t ever mention it. You think to yourself that you will try to avoid talking to this person as much as possible.
Your co-worker could have been a great person to work with and a solid connection could have been made. But this one characteristic led to poor judgment of them in general.
Trying To Find A Romantic Partner
Another scenario to consider is in the realm of dating. Let’s say you are a man looking to meet a new woman.
It’s finally the weekend and one of your close friends invites you out with his girlfriend and her friends. The night is going well and you and her friend are really getting along.
You are a single man and think this might be someone you want to get to know further.
The night is coming to a close and you ask her if she would want to go back to your place or exchange information and meet up at another time.
She states that you were a great guy, but your height is an issue for her, “She only dates men who are taller”, but insists that you both could be friends. You are shocked by the comment and taken aback by it.
Assuming you wouldn’t be a worthy mate simply because of one negative trait in her eyes is another example of the horn effect.
Searching For A New Home
Let’s say you are an African-American man in a couple with your fiancé (let’s assume you both are African American). You want to take the next steps in your relationship by pooling your income and moving in together.
Your fiancé’s friend knows a real estate agent. You arrange a day for you both to meet the real estate agent and look at some homes. You inform her that you both are pre-approved for a mortgage.
Upon meeting the real estate agent notices that you are African-American. When she searches for available homes, she “claims that she doesn’t have any homes for smaller budgets.”
This angers you when the real estate agent assumes you and your fiancé would not be able to afford the higher-priced homes.
The real estate agent has very little information on you other than your appearance.
This is an example of the horn effect is a common occurrence for middle-class African-Americans.
3 Ways To Prevent The Horn Effect From Ruining Your Life
The horn effect is an unfortunate psychological phenomenon, that can affect the quality of life In many situations. But there are a few ways to keep it from ruining your life:
You and everyone else are very complex.
No one is defined by a single trait. Take a good look at yourself, and realize that no one knows you as well as you know yourself. Their opinion of you should never hold much weight in your mind.
Never judge someone only on a first impression.
You have no idea what that person might be experiencing at that moment. Why their presentation might not be the best. Combat your own bias by taking the time to really get to know someone’s character before you ever judge them.
Be objective as much as possible.
First impressions are extremely subjective and aren’t based on any actual information you have about someone. If you don’t like a person, ask yourself why? Has the person done something to you, or is your dislike based on purely their appearance?
This was a long article, but you should have a clear understanding of the horn effect and how it manifests in your life, and a few ways that you can combat it.